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Advanced Technology Consultants

Laguna Niguel, California
USA    92677
Tel: 949 467 9233
(001 prefix outside USA)

Lugano, Ticino
Switzerland 6900



Combustion and Emission Technologies for Automotive Engines


A good understanding of the physical and mathematical principles of the combustion process will permit engineers to effectively contribute to emission control strategies and design and develop emission control systems and components. In addition, this seminar will build sufficientbackground to enhance interdisciplinary collaboration between research and development, design, and manufacturing engineers. Issues related to combustion and emissions will be brought "down to the earth" with minimal use of mathematical terms and maximum application of physical explanations and analogies. However, the notes for this seminar are intended  to be "reasonably complete" so that an engineer who desires to go beyond the objectives of this seminar, may do so by merely reading the included notes. For this reason, some of the handouts relate to advanced mathematical formulas that are not essential and not covered in the seminar itself. 


This seminar introduces the jargon of combustion and emphasizes the definitions and necessity for precise usage of these terms. Equilibrium species composition, its meaning, limitations, and applications are discussed. Chemical kinetics terms and concepts are explained and their utilization is demonstrated in the context of explosion and hydrogen/hydrocarbon (HC) fuels oxidations. Autoignition, flame structure and propagation, and flammability limits are discussed. Combustion, flame structure and speed, burning speed, turbulence and turbulent burning speed, cyclic variability of combustion, and partial burning and misfire are among the subjects covered in the context of combustion engines. Also discussed are the formation of major pollutants such as, nitric oxides, carbon monoxide, and unburned hydrocarbons. The formation of minor species are described in brief. Effects of engine design and operating parameters are also emphasized and discussed. Finally, after-treatment of pollutants in the exhaust system including catalytic conversions are described.


Benefits of Attending

Upon completion of this seminar, you will:

  •        Gain a comprehensive understanding of the important processes in combustion and emission

  •        Develop the background and necessary foundation to educate yourself beyond the depth and topics covered

  •        Learn the formation mechanisms and reduction strategies of pollutant species in combustion systems

  •        Understand the effects of engine design and operating conditions on combustion and emission

  •        Be able to communicate effectively with engineers working on combustion and emission aspects in your  company

  •        Grasp the technology and the logic behind after-treatment of pollutants

  •        Comprehend the underlying laws and principles used in many Black-boxed computer programs available for combustion and emission

  •        Discover the role chemical kinetics plays in the design of low-emission combustion systems

  •        Effectively contribute to the design of critical components such as combustion chambers and exhaust systems

  •        Identify design trade-offs between increasing engine performance and maintaining low emission characteristics.

Who Should Attend:

This seminar will be especially valuable for engineers, technical and project managers, researchers, and academicians. Presently, the design of many components in engines are affected by combustion and emission control measures to meet customer's, federal and local government's demands and regulations. Hence, engineers working on the design of components for high efficiency and performance of combustion engines as well as those directly and indirectly involved in reducing emission of harmful pollutants from combustion engines will highly benefit from this course. Additionally, this course provides adequate background for engineers and managers in contact with those directly involved in combustion and emission issues and will prepare them for more efficient and intelligent communication in an interdisciplinary environment. Environmental engineers desiring to expand their understanding of combustion and emissions from engines will benefit, as well as, engineers active in the development and application of software for the modeling of thermal-fluid, combustion and emission processes.  



How to Arrange for a Presentation:

Due to ATC's low overhead, direct-contact clients are offered a  competitive and cost-effective package.  Individuals interested in these seminars should contact Advanced Technology Consultants (ATC) directly. Alternatively,  this seminar (prepared by the ATC and delivered by a award-winning ATC consultant) are also sponsored by the Society of Automotive Engineers (





Electronic and hard copies of the seminar materials can be purchased and are only available through ATC. Contact ATC for price and shipping.


NOTE: Professionally-prepared "audio-video Powerpoint-type presentations" of these seminars are available for purchase by the companies. Each slide is presented with a clear audio by the consultant, describing the subject, while a digital pointer guides the audience to where the attention is to be focused. Companies can put such audio-video presentations on their intranet to be used by their employees. It is a cost effective way of approaching  professional training which also contributes towards R&D, design, and intelligent new product development. Presentations are updated every year at a fraction of the original cost.  For a sample presentation click on the word "COMBUSTION" in the picture  to get a feel of how information is transferred (High-speed internet access is recommended. Otherwise, download may take a few more minutes). For more details and pricing please contact ATC.





Table of Contents



Air Composition
Concept of "Complete Combustion"
A/F & Stoichiometric (A/F)st, and (Equivalence Ratio)
Lean, Rich, Stoichiometric Mixture
First and Second Law and Their Applications in Combustion Systems
Adiabatic Flame Temperature, Heat of Reaction (or Heating Value) and Their Usage
Thermodynamic Equilibrium, Chemical Equilibrium, and Condition for Equilibrium

Demonstration Applications of Equilibrium Using Computer Simulation (SuperState)

Chemical Kinetics
    -General concept and rate of reaction (RR)
    -Classifying reactions
Reaction Between Gas Molecules and a Surface of Solid
    -Physical absorption, chemisorption, and heterogeneous catalysts
    -Nature of catalysis reaction
    -Arrhenius equation and activation energy
    -nalysis of data for complex reaction

    -General characteristics of catalysis
    -Simplified generalized kinetic model (slow reaction and explosion)
    -Explosion and Flammability limits
Mechanism of H+  O2 Reaction

Oxidation of CO
Explosion Limits of hydrocarbons (HC)

    -Experimental combustion characteristics

    -Methane and Paraffin oxidations
    -Demonstration applications of chemical kinetics using SuperState
Autoignition and Induction Time Using SuperState

Kock in SI engines

    -Effects of design and operating conditions

    -Effects of fuels

    -Effect of turbulence

    -Effects of other parameters
Flame and its Propagation
    -Laminar flame structure
    -Laminar flame speed (SL)
    -Flammability limits
    -Quenching distance dT
    -Flame stabilization

Combustion in SI Engines
    -Simple thermodynamic analysis of SI engine combustion
    -Flame and unburned gas motions
    -Mass fraction burned and heat release analysis
    -Combustion process characterization
        -Flame structure, speed, and effects of various parameters on burning rate
SL Laminar burning velocity
Turbulence & Turbulent flame
Cyclic variability, partial burning & misfire
Pollutant Formation and Control
    -Nature of problem SI & CI
    -NO and NO2 formation kinetics and reduction
    -CO kinetics and reduction
    -Unburned Hydrocarbon (UIIC) emission and reduction
    -Effects of some design and operating parameters on HC and
        NOx and engine efficiency
Demonstration Applications of Pollution Effects Using SuperState
    -Minor species
    -Lean-burn engine
Exhaust Gas Treatments
    -Catalytic Converters
    -Thermal reactors
Typical Engine Emission Results
Emission Measurements
FTP Emission Standards



"Combustion and Emissions for Engineers is an excellent overview of the internal combustion engine's underlying chemistry."
Steven Cagle

"Dr. Bruce Chehroudi successfully blends fundamental and practical explanations of combustion and emissions subjects to maximize comprehension. This course is an excellent way to steepen the learning curve in this complex and fascinating area of Engineering. Highly recommended; bring your questions!"
Jeremy (Jay) Palko
Engine Systems & Dyno Development Engineer
Chrysler LLC


Instructor:  Bruce Chehroudi  

Dr. Chehroudi, has accumulated years of technical and leadership experiences in different capacities and organizations. This includes such positions as a Principal Scientist and Group Leader appointment at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) ERCInc, a Chief Scientist at Raytheon STX, a Visiting Technologist at Ford�s Advanced Manufacturing Technology Development (AMTD) center, a tenured Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Kettering University and University of Illinois, and served as a Senior Research Staff/Research Fellowship at Princeton University. Dr. Chehroudi directed numerous multimillion dollar interdisciplinary projects in areas involving chemically reacting flows, combustion and emission of pollutants, sustainable and alternative energy sources, distributed ignition, material/fuel injection, advanced pollution reduction technologies, propulsion concepts, gas turbine and liquid rocket engines, combustion instability, laser optical diagnostics, spectroscopy, supercritical fluids and applications in environmental and propulsion systems, advanced composites, MEMS, nanotechnology, and micro fluidics. He has won many merit and leadership awards by such prestigious organizations as the Society of Automotive Engineers (1. Arch. T. Colwell Merit Award for technical excellence only to top 1% yearly, 2. Ralph R. Teetor Award for outstanding teaching/research/leadership, 3. Forest R. McFarland Award for sustained leadership in professional and educational service and a key contributor to the Continuing Professional Development Group, 4. Appreciation Award for 10 years of dedicated and inspiring  service and commitment to providing quality technical education, and  5. Outstanding Faculty Advisor), American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (Best Publication Award of the Year), Air Force Research Laboratories (1. Outstanding Technical Publication Award, and 2. STAR Team Award for demonstrating world-class combined scientific and leadership achievements), Institute of Liquid Atomization and Sprays Systems (Marshall Award for best publication with lasting contributions), Liquid Propulsion Sub-committee of Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) (Best Liquid Propulsion Paper Award involving undergraduate/graduate students),  and the 2nd International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena (Top 10 Technical Publication Award). He has been a consultant with many organizations such as, Ford, GM, HondaR&D, AFRL, Honeywell, NASA, AFOSR, VW, Bosch, Siemens, NGK, Cummins, and TRW. Through professional societies, Dr. Chehroudi delivers invited professional seminars on Management of R&D Teams and Organizations, Management of Innovation, Combustion and Emission of Pollutants in Automotive and Gas Turbine Engines, Ignition Issues, Gasoline Direct Injection engines, R&D on Homogeneously-Charged Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines, and Liquid Injection Technologies. He has a PhD in Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering and Post-Doctoral Fellow (Princeton University), MS in Mechanical Engineering (Southern Methodist University, Summa Cum Laude), MS in Economics (Swiss Finance Institute, Magna Cum Laude), a senior member of American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Propellant & Combustion Committee (2008-present), and is an Associate Fellow of American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Dr. Chehroudi acts as a reviewer for many scientific and engineering journals and publishers, has delivered over 200 presentations in technical meetings and to nontechnical audiences, over 20 technical reports (Princeton University, General Motors, Ford Motor Co, Department of Energy, NASA, Air Force Research Laboratory), five 600-plus-page monographs on combustion and emission of pollutants from mobile power plants, ignition technologies, liquid material injection, and nanotechnology,   two book chapters on propulsion system combustion instability and applications of graphene (a nanotech product) in ignition and combustion of fuels, ground-breaking patents on applications and synergy between nanotechnology, light, and chemical reaction for a light-activated distributed ignition of fuel-air mixtures, and has more than 150 publications with extensive experience in both scientific and management areas and intensive trainings in finance and financial engineering



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