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Advanced Technology Consultants

Laguna Niguel, California
USA    92677
Tel: 949 467 9233
(001 prefix outside USA)

Lugano, Ticino
Switzerland 6900



Combustion and Emission Technologies for Diesel Engines: From Injector to Aftertreatment in Exhaust  


  A Three-Day Seminar
(Tailored to the customer needs)

The combustion in diesel engines is very complex due to its heterogeneous nature, where liquid fuel breakup, evaporation, fuel-air and burned-unburned gas mixing, and combustion  occur simultaneously.  Consequently, there are many processes that could contribute to diesel engine combustion and  emission of pollutants.  Dynamics of liquid jet breakup, vaporization, mixing and chemical reactions are key processes that go hand-in-hand  in order to bring the combustionprocess to completion. At the same time, formation and oxidation of particulates, hydrocarbon formation/oxidation mechanisms, and nitric oxides generations occur which contribute to the exhaust emission levels. Although aftertreatment of the pollutants in the exhaust is an important measure to manage  emission levels  to the atmosphere,  innovative in-cylinder  combustion  control strategies are always preferred. It is  this philosophy that  motivated major efforts on preparation of this short course for diesel engines and is the basis of most discussions here. Therefore, extensive time is spent on understanding in-cylinder phenomena and their control strategies. On the other hand, emission standards  for diesel engines are increasingly tighter  due to severe health and environmental effects of  particulates and other pollutants. For example, the Tier 2 US federal emissions standards for diesel car and trucks, especially the Bin 5 level, are considered the most stringent requirement for engine manufacturers.  The most demanding standards are set for NOx (nitric oxides) and particulates in that order. For example, the phase-in value (Bin 8) is 0.2 g/km, to be reduced to Bin 5, which requires 0.07 g/km averaged  across an automaker’s light-vehicle fleet. This is  50% reduction from its previous standard.  The Bin 5 level is set  for the year 2007 with full implementation  for all cars and light-duty  trucks planned by year 2009. Considering the urgent need to meet the standards with no compromise in efficiency, it appears timely to discuss the nature of the combustion in diesel engines for fuel economy improvements and understand the mechanism of formation and emission of three important pollutants from diesel engines, namely, NOx, particulates, and hydrocarbon. To the extend that the inclusion of aftertreatment options affects the in-cylinder combustion processes or vice versa, they are presented in details.


Benefits of Attending

Upon completion of this seminar, you will:

  •           Gain a comprehensive understanding of the important processes in combustion and emission

  •           Develop the background and necessary foundation to educate yourself beyond the depth and topics covered

  •           Learn the formation mechanisms and reduction strategies of pollutant species in combustion systems

  •           Understand the effects of engine design and operating conditions on combustion and emission

  •           Be able to communicate effectively with engineers working on combustion and emission aspects in your company

  •           Grasp the technology and the logic behind after-treatment of pollutants

  •           Discover the role chemical kinetics plays in the design of low-emission combustion systems

  •            Effectively contribute to the design of critical components such as combustion chambers and exhaust systems

  •            Identify design trade-offs between increasing engine performance and maintaining low emission characteristics.

Who Should Attend:

This seminar will be especially valuable for engineers, technical and project managers, researchers, and academicians. Presently, the design of many components in engines are affected by combustion and emission control measures to meet customer's, federal and local government's demands and regulations. Hence, engineers working on the design of components for high efficiency and performance of combustion engines as well as those directly and indirectly involved in reducing emission of harmful pollutants from combustion engines will highly benefit from this course. Additionally, this course provides adequate background for engineers and managers in contact with those directly involved in combustion and emission issues and will prepare them for more efficient and intelligent communication in an interdisciplinary environment. Environmental engineers desiring to expand their understanding of combustion and emissions from engines will benefit, as well as, engineers active in the development and application of software for the modeling of thermal-fluid, combustion and emission processes.  




How to Arrange for a Presentation:

Due to ATC's low overhead, direct-contact clients are offered a  competitive and cost-effective package.  Individuals interested in these seminars should contact Advanced Technology Consultants (ATC) directly. Alternatively,  this seminar (prepared by the ATC and delivered by a award-winning ATC consultant) are also sponsored by the Society of Automotive Engineers (





Electronic and hard copies of the seminar materials can be purchased and are only available through ATC. Contact ATC for price and shipping.


NOTE: Professionally-prepared "audio-video Powerpoint-type presentations" of these seminars are available for purchase by the companies. Each slide is presented with a clear audio by the consultant, describing the subject, while a digital pointer guides the audience to where the attention is to be focused. Companies can put such audio-video presentations on their intranet to be used by their employees. It is a cost effective way approaching  professional training which also contributes towards R&D, design, and intelligent new product development. Presentations are updated every year at a fraction of the original cost.  For a sample presentation click on the word "IGNITION" in the picture to get a feel of how information is transferred (High-speed internet access is recommended. Otherwise, download may take a few more minutes). For more details and pricing contact ATC.






Seminar Content

·Thermodynamics review
o    First law
o    Second law
o    Reversibility I
o    Diesel gas cycles
·Combustion in Diesel Engines
o    Definitions
o    Three phases of combustion
o    Combustion chamber design considerations
o    Models-properties of working fluids
o    Heat release diagram
·Fuels and fuel quality
o    Introduction – natural fuels and background
o    Petroleum and its products
o    Paraffins/alkenes
o    Olefins/alkenes
o    Aromatics
o    Alcohols
o    Vapor pressure
o    Fuel For CI Engines – specifications
o    Diesel fuel classifications
o    Effect of sulfur
o    Effect of aromatics
o    Effect of other fuel properties
o    DME
o    Emulsions
o    Fischer tropsch


·Diesel fuel spray, injector and injection system 
    · Fuel injection system
        · Pumps (concise coverage)
            · In-line injection pump
            · Distributor-type injection pump
            · Single-barrel injection pumps
            · Unit injector & unit pump
        · Injector designs
            · Nozzle holder
            · Nozzles
            · Others

    · Overall spray structure
    · Liquid fuel atomization
    · Spray angle
    · Intact core length
    · Spray penetration
    · Effects of several parameters on mean droplet diameter
    · Spray evaporation
    · Advanced topics (details of split injection, common-rail injection, interacting-sprays
        injection, ultra-high pressure fuel injection, and others effects on performance and emissions)
·Diesel combustion & emissions in DI engines
o    Diffusion combustion
o    Factors affecting the combustion process
o    Combustion influence on fuel economy
o    Combustion influence on emissions
o    Fuel quality
o    Autoignition
o    Ignition delay

    Effects of fuel injection parameters on ignition delay period
o    Heat release  rate and mixing-controlled combustion
o    Effects of fuel injection on ignition delay  and on engine performance, efficiency, and emissions
o    HC emission mechanisms in diesel engines and its relation to fuel injection
o    Soot formation and fuel sprays
Effect of A/F on particulate/smoke
Effect of charge air cooling on PM
Turbocharger optimization for PM control
Features of Modern Diesel Engines
o    Regulatory constraints/design targets
o    NOx control
o    Fuel economy vs NOx control
o    Effect of injection pressure
o    Combined effect of injection timing and charge air cooling


·Post-Combustion Emission Control Devices (Aftertreatment)
o    Particulate matter analysis
o    Oxidation catalysts
o    3-way catalytic converter
o    Selective catalytic reduction
o    Particulate filters
o    Combination trap/catalyst systems
o    Lean NOx traps
o    Lean NOx catalysts
o    NOx aftertreatment
o    Particulate aftertreatment
o    Cold start issues
·Emerging engine technologies
o    Motivators
o    EGR systems
o    Water injection/emulsion
o    Special post-combustion emission control devices & systems
o    Non-thermal plasma
o    Non-thermal plasma assisted catalysts

Instructor:  Bruce Chehroudi  

Dr. Chehroudi, has accumulated years of technical and leadership experiences in different capacities and organizations. This includes such positions as a Principal Scientist and Group Leader appointment at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) ERCInc, a Chief Scientist at Raytheon STX, a Visiting Technologist at Ford’s Advanced Manufacturing Technology Development (AMTD) center, a tenured Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Kettering University and University of Illinois, and served as a Senior Research Staff/Research Fellowship at Princeton University. Dr. Chehroudi directed numerous multimillion dollar interdisciplinary projects in areas involving chemically reacting flows, combustion and emission of pollutants, sustainable and alternative energy sources, distributed ignition, material/fuel injection, advanced pollution reduction technologies, propulsion concepts, gas turbine and liquid rocket engines, combustion instability, laser optical diagnostics, spectroscopy, supercritical fluids and applications in environmental and propulsion systems, advanced composites, MEMS, nanotechnology, and micro fluidics. He has won many merit and leadership awards by such prestigious organizations as the Society of Automotive Engineers (1. Arch. T. Colwell Merit Award for technical excellence only to top 1% yearly, 2. Ralph R. Teetor Award for outstanding teaching/research/leadership, 3. Forest R. McFarland Award for sustained leadership in professional and educational service and a key contributor to the Continuing Professional Development Group, 4. Appreciation Award for 10 years of dedicated and inspiring  service and commitment to providing quality technical education, and  5. Outstanding Faculty Advisor), American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (Best Publication Award of the Year), Air Force Research Laboratories (1. Outstanding Technical Publication Award, and 2. STAR Team Award for demonstrating world-class combined scientific and leadership achievements), Institute of Liquid Atomization and Sprays Systems (Marshall Award for best publication with lasting contributions), Liquid Propulsion Sub-committee of Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) (Best Liquid Propulsion Paper Award involving undergraduate/graduate students),  and the 2nd International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena (Top 10 Technical Publication Award). He has been a consultant with many organizations such as, Ford, GM, Honda R&D, AFRL, Honeywell, NASA, AFOSR, VW, Bosch, Siemens, NGK, Cummins, and TRW. Through professional societies, Dr. Chehroudi delivers invited professional seminars on Management of R&D Teams and Organizations, Management of Innovation, Combustion and Emission of Pollutants in Automotive and Gas Turbine Engines, Ignition Issues, Gasoline Direct Injection engines, R&D on Homogeneously-Charged Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines, and Liquid Injection Technologies. He has a PhD in Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering and Post-Doctoral Fellow (Princeton University), MS in Mechanical Engineering (Southern Methodist University, Summa Cum Laude), MS in Economics (Swiss Finance Institute, Magna Cum Laude), a senior member of American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Propellant & Combustion Committee (2008-present), and is an Associate Fellow of American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Dr. Chehroudi acts as a reviewer for many scientific and engineering journals and publishers, has delivered over 200 presentations in technical meetings and to nontechnical audiences, over 20 technical reports (Princeton University, General Motors, Ford Motor Co, Department of Energy, NASA, Air Force Research Laboratory), five 600-plus-page monographs on combustion and emission of pollutants from mobile power plants, ignition technologies, liquid material injection, and nanotechnology,   two book chapters on propulsion system combustion instability and applications of graphene (a nanotech product) in ignition and combustion of fuels, ground-breaking patents on applications and synergy between nanotechnology, light, and chemical reaction for a light-activated distributed ignition of fuel-air mixtures, and has more than 150 publications with extensive experience in both scientific and management areas and intensive trainings in finance and financial engineering






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